What Is Absolutely Needed For A Saltwater Fish-Only Aquarium
(besides the livestock)
The 16 products you
the 3 you might need, and the decor you probably want
You wish to have a saltwater fish-only aquarium. What do you need to be able to put fish into the aquarium with a reasonable expectation they will survive and thrive? Here are the 16 essential products necessary to have a saltwater fish-only aquarium. NOTE: We also have an article on What Is Absolutely Needed For A Reef Aquarium.Filtration
With a quality filter you will need to do less work cleaning your tank. For tanks less than 40 gallons a simple hang-on Power Filter
or Canister Filter
is perfect. For larger tanks the best solution is a high quality protein skimmer
. We recommend the protein skimmers from Reef Octopus
, Red Sea
Our protein skimmer
section organizes skimmers by tank size and where the skimmer is located (hang-on back, in sump or in tank
). A sump is a great place to put a protein skimmer as it removes it from view. For those without a sump you can use a hang on the back skimmer.
Some “complete” nano tanks, such as the Coralife BioCube
, have a filtration chamber built into a back compartment of the aquarium. There is an area there to house a small protein skimmer.
- Protein Skimmer Overview
- Filtration Overview
Fish-only aquariums do not have to have as much light as reef aquariums. The fish need very little light. However, you may want to have a brighter light so you can better enjoy your aquarium. Refer to the Fish Only Tanks Lighting Chart
when choosing a light.
LED lights will save you money because they are energy efficient and you won't need to change the bulbs. They should last for five to ten years although with some of the cheaper LED lights you might see earlier failure of some of the individual LEDs.
Testing is needed to insure that your water is safe for your fish. When you first set up a tank you will want to test for ammonia, nitrite and nitrate. The Red Sea MCP Marine Care Test Kit
and the Aquarium Pharmaceuticals Saltwater Test Kit
both include these three tests along with other helpful tests.
Once your tank is set up and running the pH and the nitrate tests will be the most important. If your nitrates are at 20 ppm or above, you definitely should do a water change. If your pH drops below 7.8, you need to add buffer
(see the Aquarium Buffer section for buffer use
You will need to test the salinity of your saltwater. The Coralife Deep Six Hydrometer
is a good choice. You will also need an aquarium thermometer
- Test Kit Overview
You will need to clean your aquarium to keep it healthy and attractive. For maintenance you will need a good gravel vac and algae magnet. The Python Gravel Vacs
and the Flipper Magnet Cleaners
are good choices. Make sure to look at the depth of your aquarium when choosing a gravel vac and thickness of your glass when choosing an algae magnet.
- Cleaning Basics 101: Five Pro Cleaning Tips
- Top 10 Aquarium Maintenance Hacks
All of the aquarium salts
we sell are high quality. For smaller tanks we recommend the Two Little Fishies AccuraSea1
because it comes in five gallon packets that make it easy to mix saltwater in five gallon increments. You might consider the Two Little Fishies Small Saltwater Aquarium Salt Mixing & Water Change Package
for smaller reef aquariums.
Mixing saltwater should start with RO or RO/DI water. You can buy the water at your local fish store or grocery store or make your own using an RO System
. Ideally, you will want to use one that is an RO/DI (DI stands for deionization) instead of just RO (reverse osmosis). If you insist on using tap water, we don't recommend it. But if you do be sure to dechlorinate the water using a product such as Seachem Prime
- RO & RO/DI System Overview
- Aquarium Water Changes: Making It Simple
Most saltwater aquariums have tropical fish and you will probably want to create an environment that looks appropriate for tropical saltwater fish.
You will want some sand. We recommend using an aragonite sand substrate. CaribSea Florida Crushed Coral
and CaribSea Seafloor Special Grade Reef Sand
are good sand substrate choices.
Most people with saltwater fish-only tanks have some sort of rock structure. You can use either live rock or dry rock. Live rock is critical in a reef aquarium as it helps with biological filtration. This biological filtration is also helpful in a fish-only aquarium. Live rock is harvested from the ocean and can be purchased locally. Dry rock is cheaper than live rock and creating interesting structures is easier with dry rock. You can use Two Little Fishies STAX Rock
or CaribSea LifeRock Shapes
. You will need coral/coral rock adhesive
to glue your rocks together.
- BioCube 32 Rock, Sand, and Salt Package Guide
(this is specific to the BioCube, but the concepts apply to all reef aquariums
You will notice on our web site we have hundreds of different additives for aquariums. The good news is that most of these are for advanced aquarists looking for specific results. Reef aquariums need additives that fish-only saltwater aquariums do not require. Most aquariums with sufficient water changes will just need to add pH buffer. Buffer should be added based on need after testing the pH.
- Additives Overview
Water movement is important in fish-only tanks to oxygenate the water and stir up the waste so the filter can remove it. As a general rule you will want to have enough water movement to turn over your aquarium’s total water volume at least 6 to 7 times per hour. More is better. When calculating the total water turnover you can add together the flow of all the pumps in your system.
With the Coralife BioCube
and other other integrated nano aquariums there is a circulation pump in the back chamber. You can add an additional powerhead in the tank to increase flow.
Tanks without a back chamber or a sump will require powerheads inside the tank. We recommend using two—one in each corner. The Rossmont Movers
and Hydor Koralias
are great choices.
Larger aquariums with sumps can count the return pump flow from the sump, but they may also require powerheads in the tank for additional flow if the return pump volume is not at least 6 to 7 times the tank volume. We have large aquarium pumps from Little Giant
. DC pumps, such as the Reef Octopus Controllable
, are very energy efficient.
- Pump Overview
Saltwater aquariums need to have a temperature between 76-82 degrees. You will need a thermometer
to know your tank temperature.
If the room where your aquarium is located has a steady temperature of around 75-80 degrees, you probably will not need a heater or chiller. These days, with low heat LED lights and DC pumps, the need for chillers is less common, but if you keep the room with your aquarium at a temperature over 80 degrees you will probably need a chiller (the equipment will raise the temperature over the 82 degree threshold
we highly recommend that you get a bigger chiller than is absolutely necessary as it will not cost much more. In the event of a heat wave or a air conditioner failure that extra capacity may save you aquarium’s inhabitants.
If your aquarium temperature is dropping below 76 degrees at any time you will need a heater
. All the heaters we carry have aquarium size ratings. Keep in mind the rating assumes you only need to raise the temperature by 10 degrees.
- Heater Overview
- Chiller Overview
Your home may have GF/CI outlets, but if they don’t you might want to have one installed for your aquarium equipment. The alternative is the Shock Shield GFCI Plug Adapter
This really depends on the type of fish you purchase. Ask at the aquarium store about the best food for the fish you purchase.
If you travel and no one is at home to take care of your fish, you might consider an automatic fish feeder
You will always want to use a fish net
to move fish you purchase at the aquarium store.
Every saltwater fish-only aquarium definitely
needs these 16 Products:
1. Aquarium (& stand)
2. GF/CI outlet or adapter
water (you can make your own or purchase it from the store as needed)
7. Protein skimmer
, Power Filter
or Canister Filter
10. Test kits
11. Ph Buffer
13. Gravel vac
14. Algae magnet
15. Fish food
16. Fish net
Your reef aquarium might
need these products:
1 If you tank gets above 82 you need a chiller
2. If your tank gets below 76 you need a heater
3. Fish feeder
You will probably want to add decorations
. The fish will be fine without them, but your aquarium will be a bit boring to look at. You will need to attach the decorations to a rock structure (STAX Rock or LifeRock Shapes
) using an appropriate adhesive
(coral adhesives will work with artificial corals
). Many of the decorations we carry are very realistic looking and they'll have a long life even if you don't pay attention to them.
For help in getting your tank started we recommend you read the Coralife LED BioCube Aquarium Setup Guide
. The guide is specific to the Coralife BioCube (and it does show how to set up a tank for corals
), but most of the concepts presented in the article apply to all saltwater aquariums. There are links to videos we produced that will help with cycling your tank, adding livestock and much more.
If you need further help please always feel free to shoot an Email to firstname.lastname@example.org